Michele Triplett's Fingerprint Terms ©
A collection of over 1000 terms used in the Science of Fingerprint Identification.

Home \ Bottom
A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S1 \ S2 \ T \ U \ V \ W \ XYZ




FBI / Lockheed-Martin 50k x 50k Study (1999)
A statistical study done to support the uniqueness theory of fingerprints.  This 
study was used in Daubert hearings to justify biological uniqueness and to validate 
fingerprint methodology.  The 50k x 50k study was never published and therefore many 
claim that it is not a scientifically sound study and should not be used as supporting 
evidence.

FEPAC
Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission.

FER
Fluorescence Excitation Radiometry.  A new forensic light source introduced in 2005 
by Light Diagnostics.

FFS
Fellow of The Fingerprint Society.

FLS
Forensic Light Source.  Common term for all light sources including 
lasers used in forensic examinations.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

FQS
Forensic Quality Services.

FRE
Federal Rules of Evidence.

FSAB
Forensic Specialties Accreditation Board.

FSSB
Forensic Science Standards Board. In 2014, guided by NIST, a Forensic Science Standards 
Board (FSSB) was established to develop guidelines, best practices and standards for the 
forensic disciplines. Scientific Area Committees (SACs) will approve guidelines and best 
practices and recommend standards to the Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB) for 
approval. The five SACs, each with discipline specific subcommittees, are (1) Biology/DNA, 
(2) Chemistry/Instrumentation, (3) Crime Scene/Death Investigation, 
(4) Information Technology/Multimedia, and (5) Physics/Pattern. 

Fabricated Latent Print
A fabricated or falsified latent print is a latent print intentionally manufactured by 
law enforcement personnel in order to enhance the case against a suspect. This can be 
done by intentionally mislabeling a print (latent or inked) as coming from an object at 
the crime scene.

Aka Falsified Latent Print.

See Forged Latent Print.

Fabricated or Falsified Latent Prints, known cases of: 

Fred van der Vyver (South Africa)
In March 2005 Fred van der Vyver was the main suspect in the murder of his girlfriend, 
Inge Lotz.  Crucial evidence against him was a fingerprint identification labeled as being 
lifted from a DVD cover.  The identification of the print was never in question.  The 
question was whether or not the fingerprint was actually lifted from the DVD cover or 
from some other substrate.  Fred van der Vyver maintained his innocence and provided 
an air tight alibi while the State denied any possibility of a mistake.  The first person to 
suggest that the fingerprints were from a different surface was Mr Nico Kotze.  Several 
other fingerprint experts, including Dr. David Klatzow, Mike Grace, Daan Bekker, Pat 
Wertheim and Arie Zeelenberg, reviewed the case.  Daan Bekker was the first person 
to state that the latent print was lifted from a drinking glass.  In December 2006, due to 
the experts’ findings, the South African Police Department announced that they were 
not going to pursue the fingerprint evidence.  When the trail began, the fingerprint 
evidence was admitted as part of the evidence (along with other evidence that was 
suspected of being fabricated).  Mike Grimm, Bill Bodziak and Paul Ryder were the 
footwear experts in this case.  On Nov. 29, 2007 the judge, accepting that the latent 
print evidence did not come from a DVD cover, found Fred van der Vyver not guilty 
of the charges against him.  One article about this case claimed that the judge also 
slammed the testimony of several police witnesses who had given evidence on key 
forensic evidence, calling their evidence "untrustworthy", "unreliable" and "dishonest".
http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=15&art_id=vn20071201112945223C761205 12-01-07

Diana Boyd Monahan (Texas)
Indicted in 2000 on 13 counts of falsifying fingerprint reports on evidence she never tested.  
She pled guilty and received 5 years probation.

New York State Police
In 1992 an investigator with the New York State Police, David L. Harding, was arrested 
for fabricating evidence in a murder trial.  Subsequently, 4 other employees (Robert 
M. Lishansky, Craig D. Harvey, David M. Beers, and Patrick O’Hara) were charged with 
fabricating fingerprint evidence in other cases.  The total number of cases is estimated 
to be as high as 40 cases.  
In 1993, Shirley Kinge, one of the victims of fingerprint fabrication, sued the New York 
State Police.  In Feb. 2008, Judge Midey Jr. found that Kinge was the victim of malicious 
prosecution and negligent supervision of the investigator who planted the phony 
evidence implicating her in the crime.  Senior Investigator David McElligott, the 
supervisor of the Troopers involved, was forced to retire due to this scandal.  

Deputy Sheriff Jesus Durazo
In 1992, the Arizona crime lab found that Jesus Durazo had fabricated fingerprint evidence 
against a drug suspect. Despite his claims of innocence, when he was offered to resign and 
no prosecution would occur, Durazo accepted.

James Bakken, Buena Park, California
In a 1967 bank robbery (some sources say 1969), James Bakken from Buena Park, California 
fabricated evidence that resulted in William DePalma being found guilty and sentenced to 
15 years.  DePalma began serving his sentence in 1971.  Bakken testified that the latent print 
was found at the bank but it was really an exact replica of a print from a previous arrest.  
After Orange County investigated the claims, DePalma was released after serving 3 years in 
prison.  Bakken served 1 year on an unrelated charge.  He could not be prosecuted for the 
DePalma case because the statute of limitations had expired.
Dec. 1975 / Aug. 1976 Identification News

Det. Herman Wiggins, San Diego Police Department
In the 1970’s, Det. Herman Wiggins was found to have fabricated latent print evidence in up 
to 40 cases.  It is believed he had people touch the hood of his car and then he would lift the 
prints and saved them for other cases.  Officer Wiggins was arrested and faced several counts 
of falsifying evidence.  When the authenticity of the latent lift cards were questioned, Officer 
Wiggins claimed that he had several lift cards together and they may have gotten mixed up 
when he dropped his briefcase.  In Dec. of 1974 he was found guilty and sentenced to two 
years in custody.
Information provided by Rachelle Babler.

Capt. James Barker
James Barker was one of the primary investigators in the 1943 Sir Harry Oakes Case.  Maurice 
O'Neill filed charges with the IAI against Barker for fabricating evidence in this case.  In 
a very unpopular decision, the IAI cleared Barker of any wrongdoing.

Also see Erroneous Identifications, known cases of.

Fake Fingerprints
False friction ridge skin make by a person to evade identification or elude detection.

Falsifiable
There must be a way to prove the theory wrong. If we can't prove it 
wrong, it is not a scientific theory. This idea of a theory being 
falsifiable is one of the most important aspects of science. The theory, 
"Beyond Earth there is intelligent life in the universe", may be true, 
but it is not a scientific theory since there is no way to prove it false. 
http://home.earthlink.net/~johnh55/science/whatisscience.html 02-27-03

An attempt to falsify a conclusion is performed by making a concerted effort to seeking 
out disagreement instead of seeking out agreement, support or confirmation. If the most 
critical people agree with the conclusion then it is likely that the conclusion will hold 
up to strong scrutiny of others and general consensus agreement will be achieved.

Falsified Latent Print
A falsified or fabricated latent print is a latent print intentionally manufactured by law 
enforcement personnel in order to enhance the case against a suspect. This can be done by 
intentionally mislabeling a print (latent or inked) as coming from an object at the crime 
scene.

Aka Fabricated Latent Print.

See Forged Latent Print.

Faulds, Dr. Henry (June 1, 1843-Mar. 24, 1930)
Dr. Henry Faulds was a Scottish physician and a medical missionary in Japan.   Dr. Faulds 
is credited with doing many experiments to prove permanence and uniqueness.  The earliest 
article on using fingerprints as a means of identification was written by Faulds.  Nature 
Magazine published this article, “On the Skin-Furrows of the Hand”, on Oct. 28, 1880.  
Herschel replied in Nature Magazine on Nov. 25, 1880 stating he had been using fingerprints 
as a means of identification for over 20 years.  Faulds is credited for being the first 
European to suggest that fingerprints could assist in criminal investigations.  In 2012, 
writings were found that suggest that Robert Blake Overton recommended this much earlier 
than Faulds.  Additionally, he is noted as being the first person to use a latent 
fingerprint to eliminate someone as a suspect and he was the person who recommended using 
printer’s ink to record fingerprints.  In 1905 (as stated in “A Manual of Practical 
Dactylography” page 60), Dr. Faulds published "Guide to Finger- Print Identification”.  In 
1912 he published "Dactylography, The Study of Finger-Prints" (noted in “A Manual of 
Practical Dactylography” page 10) and in approx. 1915 he published “A Manual of Practical 
Dactylography".  Although Dr. Faulds greatly contributed to the science of fingerprint 
identification, he was never given full credit for this during his lifetime.

Fault Line
Shadowing in an impression in the form of a curved line.  A fault line is a visual clue 
that some sort of distortion may exist.

Faurot, Joseph A.  (Oct. 14, 1872-Nov. 20 1942)
In 1906, N.Y.P.D. Police Commissioner McAdoo sent Det. Sgt. Joseph Faurot to London 
to obtain information of the process of fingerprinting, where it had been in use for 
several years.  Det. Sgt. Faurot returned with samples of the first fingerprint cards, 
at which time the Department began to implement this new crime fighting technique.  
In 1908, a murder case was the first case solved by the N.Y.P.D. utilizing this 
technology. 
http://www.nycpolicemuseum.org/html/faq.html#fingerprint

Joseph A. Faurot retired from the New York Police Department as a Deputy Police 
Commissioner in 1926.
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/famousSearch.cgi?mode=county&FScountyid=2013 10-08-2004

Faurot was involved in many historical trials.  One of the most well known trials was 
the case of Caesar Cella in People v Crispi 1911.  Remarkably, Retired Deputy Police 
Commissioner Joseph Faurot was also involved in the trial that involved the first 
erroneous identification.  In the 1926 Hall-Mills double murder trial (New Jersey), 
Joseph Faurot along with Lieutenant Fred Drewen and Edward H. Schwartz erroneously 
identified a latent print on key evidence to one of the suspects, William Stevens.  
J.H. Taylor and Gerhardt Kuhne (brother of Frederick Kuhne) testified for the defense 
in this trial.  William Stevens and the other suspects were acquitted.  The double 
murder, which actually happened in 1922, was never solved.

Features
As of November 2004 the National Fingerprint Board of England and Wales determined:
1. The Third Level Detail Working Group acknowledges that within the international 
fingerprint community, the terminologies 1st, 2nd and 3rd Level detail is used.  
This group recommends that because of the holistic nature of fingerprint identification, 
there is no need for the use of these terms within the comparison process.  ALL 
information assisting with establishing the identification of an area of friction ridge 
detail will be termed, 'features'.

2. ALL visible features employed within the identification process may be used without 
regard to the information falling within any particular category.

3. Consequently, there is no justification for treating any type, or group of features 
separately and no requirement for a Third Level Detail Working group as such, and this 
group recommends that the national Fingerprint Board considers retaining the existing 
members as the 'Identification Working Group.'  (this group has been re-named as the, 
'Bureaux Practitioners' Group).

Distinctive details of the friction ridges, including Level 1, 2, and 3 details (also 
known as characteristics).
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

See Characteristics.

Federal Rules of Evidence
See Rule # for each specific rule.

Ferric Nitrate
Chemical used in Physical Developer and Multimetal Deposition solutions.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Ferrier, John Kenneth
Ferrier worked for the fingerprint branch of Scotland Yard.  In 1904, he 
was assigned to guard the British Crown Jewels at the World's Fair in 
St. Louis, Missouri.  The American police officials became interested in 
fingerprinting through Ferrier and for seven months he taught nine 
individuals about fingerprints and the Henry System (Edward A. Evans, 
Emmett A. Evans, Edward Brennan, John Shea, Mr. Ryan, Mary Holland, George 
Koestle, Edward Foster, and Albert G. Perrott).  During this time Ferrier 
also gave instruction to many others who were interested.  He is considered 
to be the first fingerprint instructor in the United States.  Although 
fingerprints had been used sporadically in the United States prior to 
Ferrier's arrival, Ferrier is credited with being the driving force behind 
the use of fingerprints in the U.S.

Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate
Chemical used in Physical Developer and Multimetal Deposition solutions.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Fetus
For the human species, the unborn individual from about the end of the 
second month of development until birth.  Earlier stages are termed embryo.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

An embryo during latter stages of development in the womb, after three months.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Fibula
The smaller of the two bones in the lower leg on the little toe side.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

The shorter of the two bones in the lower leg on the little toe side.

Fibular Area
The plantar area situated on the little toe side of the foot.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Final
A numerical value that is derived from the ridge count of a little finger, 
usually the right.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Finger
See Phalange.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Finger Print and Identification Magazine
Originally named "Finger Print Magazine", it was a monthly publication put 
out by the Institute of Applied Science.  This magazine was published from 
1919-1978 and was considered to be a vital part of knowledge to the 
identification industry.

Fingerprint
The term fingerprint is informally used to refer to any friction ridge skin and/or 
any impression left by friction ridge skin.

A fingerprint is the unique pattern that is created by the friction ridges on the 
fingers.  This pattern may be transferred from the fingers to other items in the 
form of a known print, a latent print or a patent print.

An impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Fingerprint Identification (AKA Friction Ridge Identification or 
Friction Skin Identification)
The applied science of identification by friction skin based on the 
Theory of Differential Growth and the Theory of Permanence.

Fingerprint Powders
Powders used to visualize friction ridge detail.  Can be magnetic, 
non-magnetic, fluorescent, bichromatic, or a variety of monochromatic 
types.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

The Fingerprint Society
The Fingerprint Society was first conceived of in 1974 by Martin J. Leadbetter, 
Stephen E. Haylock, David R. Brooker, and Nicolas J. Hall while working for the 
Hertfordshire Constabulary in England.  Martin J. Leadbetter and Stephen E. 
Haylock officially formed their organization in 1975 under the name the 'National 
Society of Fingerprint Officers' (NSFO).  The name was later changed to "The 
Fingerprint Society".  This educational organization publishes a quarterly 
journal called "Fingerprint Whorld".  The first issue was published in July 1975.

First Level Detail (also see Level 1 Detail)
General overall pattern shape, i.e., circular, looping, arching, or straight.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

The Flak-Conley Classification System
A fingerprint classification system ddeveloped in 1906 in New Jersey.  This 
classification system was an improved Conley System.

Flame Technique
Many common materials (e.g., camphor, magnesium, masking tape, 
nito-cellulose, pine tar, titanium tetrachloride) burned to produce 
soot for detection of friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

See Hot Flame Method.

Flats
The informal term for the intentional recording of the four fingers taken simultaneously 
to establish the correct order of the individual fingers.

Aka Slaps or Simultaneous Flat Impressions.

Flavin(e)
A yellow dye used as an ingredient in many reagents that are used to stain 
friction ridge detail.

Flexion Crease
Creases that are formed during friction ridge formation, completely lacking 
of any ridge detail.  Flexion creases are unique and permanent.

See Creases, White Lines, Tension Creases and Occasional Features.

Fluorescein
Fluorescent reagent used to develop bloody friction ridge detail.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Fluorescence
The emission of light caused by the absorption of radiant energy from an external 
source or stimulus.  The emission of light continues only as long as the stimulus 
continues (as opposed to phosphorescence). 

Fluorescence Excitation Radiometry
A forensic light source introduced in 2005 by Light Diagnostics.

Focal Points
1. A group of specific features used to limit search parameters.  Focal points 
may include a delta, core, creases, scars, or the flow of friction ridge detail 
(as with a recurve).  Focal points may be used for searching but not necessarily 
be used in arriving at a conclusion during the comparison process.  The search 
parameters are increased for prints with limited or no focal points.
2. In the Henry Classification, focal points refer specifically to the core and 
deltas areas.
3. The term focal point is occasionally used to refer to a target group.

1. In classification, the core(s) and the delta(s) of a fingerprint.
2. Another term for target group.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Folien
Another name for a gel lifter.  Used to lift and preserve latent fingerprints.  

Footprint
An impression left by the friction ridge skin from a plantar surface.

Forensic
Relating to, used in, or appropriate for courts of law or for public 
discussion or argumentation.
Of, relating to, or used in debate or argument; rhetorical.
Relating to the use of science or technology in the investigation and 
establishment of facts or evidence in a court of law: a forensic laboratory.
The American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=forensic 02-27-03

Forensic Light Source (FLS)
Common term for all light sources including lasers used in forensic examinations.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Forged Latent Print
A forged latent print is the print of an innocent person planted at the scene 
of a crime by the perpetrator in an attempt to implicate another person. The 
latent print may be planted by transferring a print from one surface to 
another or by touching an item with a mold of someone else’s fingerprints.

See Fabricated Latent Print or Falsified Latent Print.

Forgeot, Rene Dr.
A French criminologist at the Laboratoire D'Anthropologie Criminale, 
Lyon, France (Laboratory of Criminal Anthropology) who researched latent 
developmental techniques in approx. 1891.  He is credited with using 
ink to recover latent prints on paper, using hydrofluoric acid to recover 
latent prints on glass and osmic acid fuming to oxidize sebaceous matter.

Forking Ridge
Another term for a bifurcating ridge.

Form Blindness
The inability to see minute differences in form regarding shapes, curves, 
angles and size.  First referenced to forensic science by Albert Osborn 
in his 1910 book, "Questioned Documents".
Form Blindness: What do you see?, Jon S. Byrd

Form Perception
The ability to see minute differences in angles, forms, and size.  Form 
perception or recognition takes place in the visual cortex of the brain, 
not the eye.
Form Blindness: What do you see?, Jon S. Byrd

Foster, Edward (Aka Thomas Alfred Edward Foster) (Nov. 14, 1863-Jan. 21, 1956)
A Constable with the Dominion Police in Canada.  Credited with bringing 
fingerprint identification to Canada after meeting Ferrier at the 1904 
World's Fair.  Foster, along with Mary Holland , William M. Evans and 
Michael P. Evans, was one of the four fingerprint experts who testified 
in the historic trial "People vs. Jennings".  This was the first time 
Foster testified as a fingerprint expert.
http://www.rcmp.ca/pdfs/foster_e.pdf 08-12-2003 

Fox, Albert Ebenezer and Ebenezer Albert (1857-19??)
The Story of the Fox twins is the English equivalent to the William and Will West 
story in the United States.  The Fox twins were born in St. Ippolytes, England and 
recognized as poachers and petty thieves who accumulated over 220 convictions 
between them.  Sgt. John Ferrier is said to have used this case as an example at 
the 1904 World's Fair to show how the Bertillon system wasn't sufficient for 
identification but the Fingerprint System prevailed.  Sir Edward Henry is also said 
to have used this case of incorrect identification of the twins to throw out the 
Bertillon system and fully adopt the Fingerprint System at the Yard in 1901.  
Articles regarding this case are "Ferrier of the Yard" by John Berry, Fingerprint 
Whorld, 12:46 (Oct 1986) and "A Sly Pair" by D.R. Brooker, Fingerprint Whorld, 3:11 
(Jan 1978).  Although this story is related to events in 1901 and 1904, it is 
interesting to note that the fingerprint cards in the above articles are dated 
Sept. 7, 1913.

Friction Ridge
A raised portion of skin found on the palmar and plantar skin.  According to the 
research of Dr. William Babler, friction ridges are first seen in utero as whole 
ridges.  There is no research supporting the hypothesis that a friction ridge is 
formed by a connection of friction ridge units. 

A raised portion of the epidermis on the palmar or plantar skin, consisting of one 
or more connected ridge units.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Sometimes referred to as ruga or rugae.

Friction Ridge Detail (morphology)
An area comprised of the combination of ridge flow, ridge characteristics, and ridge 
structure.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Friction Ridge Examiner
An examiner that analyzes, compares, evaluates and verifies friction ridge impressions 
for the purpose of identification or exclusion. Examinations can be one-to-one or 
one-to-many and can range from simple to complex.
a) a tenprint examiner examines intentionally recorded impression(s).
b) a latent print examiner examines unintentionally recorded impression(s).

A person who analyzes, compares, evaluates, and verifies friction ridge impressions.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Friction Ridge Flow
The flow or curvature of the friction ridges.  Also referred to as Level 1 detail or 1st 
level detail.

Friction Ridge Identification
See Individualization.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

See Fingerprint Identification

Friction Ridge Identification Philosophy 
See Philosophy of Friction Ridge Identification.

Friction Ridge Path
The paths or deviations of a friction ridge (endings and bifurcations).  Also referred to as 
Level 2 details or 2nd level details.

Friction Ridge Shapes
The shapes (width and contour) of the ridges.  Also referred to as Level 3 details or 3rd level details.

Friction Ridge Unit
A theoretical length of measurement.  

A single section of ridge containing one pore.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Friction Skin
Corrugated skin on the volar areas that enhances friction of the surface.
Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis, David R. Ashbaugh 1999 CRC Press

Also known as thick skin, compared to the skin on the rest of the body, 
which is thin skin.

Friction Skin Formation, stages of:
(Current Hypothesis)
Swelling of the volar pads.
The volar pads start to regress.
Primary ridges form.
Sweat glands develop.
Secondary ridges develop.
Anastomoses form.
Dermal papillae are created.

Frye vs. US 1923
The court decision which states that a science can be testified to as long as the 
discipline is generally accepted in the field which it belongs.  

The Frye standard dates back to 1923. The Frye case involved a criminal conviction 
in which the defense proposed that an expert instruct the jury by administering a 
systolic blood pressure test as a means of establishing Frye’s innocence. The trial 
court ruled this testimony inadmissible. The appellate court upheld the trial court’s 
decision, stating that the expert witness testimony lacked “general acceptance” in 
its particular field, thereby establishing the Frye standard. 
http://www.aaos.org/wordhtml/bulletin/oct04/fline2.htm 05-27-2006

The court opinion was the systolic blood pressure test hadn’t crossed the line 
between experimental and demonstrable.

Fulcrum Area
The area between the thumb and index finger on the palm.
SWGFAST, Glossary - Consolidated 09-09-03 ver. 1.0
http://www.swgfast.org/Glossary_Consolidated_ver_1.pdf

Funnel  
A term popularized by Ron Smith to describe the ridge pattern in the 
hypothenar area of the palm.  The ridges start on the outer edge of the 
palm and turn upward converging to the center of the palm.

Furrow Folds
Folds on the underside of the epidermis that correspond to the surface 
furrows.  Aka Secondary ridges.

Furrows
Valleys or depressions between friction ridges.
SWGFAST, Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination 3-23-11 ver. 3.0

Also referred to a sulcus (plural: sulci).




Top \ Home
A \ B \ C \ D \ E \ F \ G \ H \ I \ J \ K \ L \ M \ N \ O \ P \ Q \ R \ S1 \ S2 \ T \ U \ V \ W \ XYZ

.

Copyright © 2002-2014, Michele Triplett. All rights reserved.